germanium transistors using

Hi Donald, There is a simple but useful (initial) sizing technique for output transistors for amps with AB output stages: The Vce0 of the replacement transistor should be about 20% - 30% higher than the rail-to-rail voltage (or the supply voltage, if it is a single supply amp) of the amplifier.

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Nov 01, 2019· A team of researchers at the Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, has built the first graphene-based transistor with a Schottky emitter, which is a silicon-graphene-germanium ...

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Transistor - Transistor - Silicon transistors: During the 1950s, meanwhile, scientists and engineers at Bell Labs and Texas Instruments were developing advanced technologies needed to produce silicon transistors. Because of its higher melting temperature and greater reactivity, silicon was much more difficult to work with than germanium, but it offered major prospects for better performance ...

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Jul 31, 2015· Following on from the Transistor / Component Tester review and teardown video, I briefly introduce germanium transistors and see if they can also be tested with this cheap transistor tester. See ...

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Well, for starters germanium transistors have the opposite polarity from most common silicon transistors, like your 2N3904. So you need to swap the plus and minus of your power supply, plus reverse all diodes.. What strikes me as a bit odd on the diagrams in the article is the use of a dual power supply, with both positive and negative voltages.

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Yes, germanium was the only material used in transistors from when they were invented in 1947 until 1954 when the first successful silicon transistor was made. However the use of germanium still ...

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Oct 01, 2012· How to Test Germanium Transistors - We use these AC128 transistors in our Fuzz Face Clone Pedal Kit. You can buy our transistors in our store, or you can buy your own.

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Aug 13, 2016· As we all know, both Silicon and Germanium are semiconductor devices. But the present trend is to use Silicon instead of Germanium. What may be the reasons? Although both silicon and germanium are used in semiconductor devices, the present day trend is to use silicon. The main reasons for this are : (i) Smaller ICBO. At room temperature, a silicon crystal has fewer free electrons …

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Jul 27, 2018· Many effect pedal manufacturers have also started to release fuzz pedals that once again make use of germanium transistors. To get the germanium fuzz sound in an effect pedal today you can check out the Havalina, 69 mkII, and Buffalo FX Germanium Fuzz. The problems with germanium transistors are many.

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You will need to buy one of item 'GE transistor testing fee' in the germanium transistor category for each transistor you want tested. For matched pairs, you will also need to email me with the gains you want. This is the fee to have germanium transistors tested for gain and leakage. 1 Original Tungsram AC188K PNP high gain Germanium transistor.

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Aug 13, 2013· All the germanium transistors I have tested, some NOS from my parts stash, and some bought as 'suitable for building a Fuzz Face' have huge levels of leakage. I do wonder whether the majority of germanium transistors when new also had these levels of leakage, or whether any surviving unused NOS germaniums have become more leaky over the years.

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Germanium vs. Silicon Transistors. September 11, 2013; Overdrive/Distortion, Technical; One facet of the design process here at Keeley Electronics comes down to selecting not just the highest quality components for use in our pedals, but the right component for the sounds we're trying to achieve.

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It is meant for beginners who are confused about what devices to use and where to get them, and as a reference for more experienced DIYers. I wrote it in 2000 when I first began offering matched germanium transistors.

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Nov 23, 2019· A transistor multimeter can tell you how much current or voltage goes through a transistor in a circuit. These transistors are used with diodes and semiconductors for letting electricity flow in a certain direction. Identify symptoms when you need to check or replace these elements.

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Nov 02, 2019· A germanium transistor is a variation on a standard transistor built on the element silicon, where, instead, a silicon-silicon-germanium alloy is commonly used to increase transmission speed of electrical signals. Individual electrical component speed adds up as an aggregate, and, therefore, a germanium transistor array can significantly increase the processing speed of a circuit.

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germanium RF Bipolar Transistors are available at Mouser Electronics. Mouser offers inventory, pricing, & datasheets for germanium RF Bipolar Transistors.

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Oct 25, 2019· Such Schottky emitter shows a current of 692 A cm−2 and a capacitance of 41 nF cm−2, and thus the alpha cut-off frequency of the transistor is expected to increase from about 1 MHz by using ...

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Jun 15, 2015· Germanium transistors : Black Glass models. ... One may cite them here as early germanium high frequency transistors, designed for Frequency Modulation receivers. They have a fourth connection, enabling the housing of the transistor to be connected to ground.

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Transistors that use a combination of silicon and germanium in the channel can reportedly be found in some recent chips, and they made an appearance in a 2015 demonstration of future chip ...

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In July 2015, IBM announced that it had created working samples of transistors using a 7 nm silicon-germanium process, promising a quadrupling in the amount of transistors compared to a contemporary process. SiGe transistors. This section does not cite any sources.

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"A History of Germanium" by Emily Darby. ... there has been a recent revival of interest in using germanium in transistors. 1,4 The superior electron and hole mobility of germanium as well as its low melting point has spurred much research into replacing current silicon based devices with germanium. 1,4 The electron and hole mobility of a ...

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In my experience, almost any properly functioning germanium transistor can sound great in a distortion pedal. To cite one particular example: a certain British manufacturer sells Fuzz Face clones for the equivalent of US$600, based on his use of two rare old germanium transistors.

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Jun 05, 2014· There are several reasons Silicon has become the preferred semiconductor in the present, over Germanium. First reason is that Si forms on its surface very easily a thin layer of SiO2 which is a very good insulator and which technologically can be...

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Nov 15, 2017· The most notable downside to germanium transistors comes in that aforementioned inconsistency. Regarding the search for "good" germanium transistors, effects maker and former Jimi Hendrix tech Roger Mayer tells us, "The reality is that you've got to buy thousands of them, and then you've got to sit down and test them all.

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Jan 31, 2019· This is why today, I would like to introduce you to my old buddy, the AC128 germanium transistor, exclusively used in my handmade Mercer Box and KATAPULT pedals . Besides being in the famous original Fuzz Face, the AC128 was used in numerous domestic electronic appliance, and certainly one of the most common European transistor.

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The development of the germanium transistor in 1948 opened the door to countless applications of solid state electronics. From 1950 through the early 1970s, this area provided an increasing market for germanium, but then high-purity silicon began replacing germanium in transistors…

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Mar 17, 2007· Germanium transistors were pretty much obsoleted forty years ago, by silicon transistors. There is a far better range of silicon transistors, and generally they have far better specs than germanium transistors. The only reason you'd use a germanium transistor at this time is if there was a specific reason for using germanium. There are still some

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Germanium transistors. The earliest practical transistors were made from germanium, and devices using this material were commonly used well into the 1970s. It's true that silicon transistors are better in most regards, but used appropriately, germanium transistors can give excellent results, and generally, they are remarkably reliable ...

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Aug 07, 2017· Yes the germanium transistors have some undesirable qualities, but they can allow starting a boost converter even at 0.5 volts. Once the converter starts, the germanium transistor is no longer needed so it goes back to working on silicon.

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Apr 02, 2011· Germanium tends to be a bit softer and warmer than Silicon, but Silicon tends to maintain attack and be less "mushy". Germanium also tends to be lower in gain than Silicon, and most Germanium transistors are less stable. Germanium is usually used for more vintage type stuff, and Silicon for a more modern type sound basically (if that helps).

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